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Nā hana hana ʻona: ʻO ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻo Plattsburgh PCB

Source: Jim Gordon Nūhou Clearwater & Bulletins

ʻO ka hoʻopau ʻia ʻana o kahi hana limahana PCB ma Lake Champlain ma Plattsburgh, NY, ua hōʻike pū ʻia ka PCB hiki ke palekana me ka maluhia mai ka muliwai Hudson. Ma ke kaʻe o ka wai loko o ka wai loko o ka wai loko o ka wai moana o Lake Champlain, he mau puʻuwai, e waiho mau i nā wai kahakai a me nā hale huki i ka wā o ʻekolu makahiki, a ke hoʻomaikaʻi nei nā mea kuli mua o ka hana kolohe.

'ʻAʻole wau i makemake iā ia ma mua. Ua hopohopo wau i ka hoʻonāukiuki ʻana i nā mea. ʻAʻole ia he mea nui iaʻu, 'wahi a Kauka Djell Dahlen, he kauka lōhi maka nona ka hale pipiʻi e pili koke ana i ke kahua kahakai 34-ʻeka ma Cumberland Bay. 'Akā ma ke ʻano he hoanoho koke, ʻaʻole ia i hoʻopilikia iki iaʻu.'

'Noho ʻo Ducks ma luna o ka lua e holo ana ka lua,' i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Bill Ebert, luna hoʻomalu pūnaewele no ka ʻenekini papahana ʻo Earth Tech Inc. Aia kēia pūnaewele ma kahi kokoke i nā kahakai o ke kūlanakauhale a me nā mokuʻāina, a me nā motel. 'Ua hāmama nā kahakai. Ua hāmama nā motel. Ua holo mau nā mea āpau, 'i ʻōlelo ʻo ia. Ua hoʻomau ka hana dredging 24 mau hola i ka lā, akā ʻaʻole i loaʻa nā hoʻopiʻi, i ʻōlelo ʻo Ebert. 'ʻO kekahi manawa ke nalu nā poʻe ma kā lākou mau patios i ka motel iā ʻoe.'

Hoʻopuni ka PCB ma ka Lūkini Champlain i ka nui o nā hoʻokolohua like ʻole i kahi hana dredging ma ka Hudson e hoʻopili ai, akā ua hoʻopau ʻia i ka manawa, ma lalo o ka hapa kālā, me ka hoʻā ʻole ʻole ʻana o nā mea hānai. Ua hoʻoneʻe ʻia ka hana 25,000 paona o PCB maikaʻi, hōʻemi i nā mea hoʻomohala ma ka pūnaewele ma mua o 90 ka pakeneka, ʻoiai ke loaʻa ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana mai nā hoalauna.

He mea maʻalahi kēlā kūleʻa e hana hou ʻia ma ka muliwai ʻo Hudson, e like me nā ʻenekini papahana nāna i mālama i ka ʻeli ʻana ma Plattsburgh. "Aia ka ʻenehana ma laila e hana pono ai, pono ʻoe e hoʻonohonoho a kāohi iā ia," i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Lech Dolata, he ʻenekini me ka mokuʻāina ʻo Environmental Conservation. 'ʻO ka laina lalo, hana dredging.'

Ua hōʻike ʻo Dolata i kahi hana maʻalahi ʻana no ka hoʻōla ʻana i PC sludge. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia kahi moku kīnā liʻiliʻi, e pili ana i nā wāwae 20 ka lōʻihi, e hoʻohana ana i ka pili ʻana o ka satini kūlana GPS (GPS) ma ka laina i makemake ʻia, a hele pū ka hana ma nā wahi i hoʻohana ʻia nā kāʻei i makemake ʻia e neʻe ai i ka dredge. He ʻoluʻolu ʻia ka hana, ʻike ʻia ka holoholona hihiu a me nā hoalauna.

Ma lalo o ka hiʻona, he ʻōpū ākea ākea ākea ākea ākea e hoʻoneʻe ana i ka sediment a kau iā ia i loko, kahi e waiho ai kahi paila haki i loko o ka pahu i uhi ʻia ma waho. ʻO nā pale siliki a me nā mea ʻē aʻe ma lalo o ka wai e mālama ai i kahi nū i hookeʻo ʻia, akā ma Plattsburgh he liʻiliʻi ka hoʻoulu ʻana o nā solids i kekahi hihia.

Ke hoʻolauna nei ʻo Georgia Pacific Corporation i kahi kaila intake i loko o kanalima mau kapekahi o ka wahi o ka papa hana, a koi aku i ka wai ʻana o ka wai me ka hapa ʻole o ka ʻāpana 2 i pākēneka o nā mea pili i hoʻokuʻu ʻia. Ua haʻi ʻo Ebert i nā mākaʻikaʻi dredge i ho'āʻo mau ʻia, akā paʻa mau i nā koi paʻa, a ua hiki i ka pūlea ke wehe i loko o ke kaʻina hana dredging.

I ka wā hou i hoʻāhu ʻia ka sedimented e hōʻemi i kona paona a i hoʻāʻo ʻia no ka huʻima. ʻO ka sedimentous ʻino mai Plattsburgh i hoʻouna ʻia ai iā Buffalo no ka puhi ʻana, aʻo ka loiloi haʻahaʻa ʻaʻole i lohi ʻia i loko o kahi pae ʻāina ma Quebec. Hoʻowai ʻia ka wai a hoʻi hou ʻia i Lake Champlain. Ua hōʻike ʻia nā hōʻike a ua maʻemaʻe wale ka pae no ka wai inu.

General Electric, ʻo ka hui e kuleana no ka ʻohi PCB i hana i ka Hudson he Federal Superfund pūnaewele, ʻōlelo kolohe ka mea e hoʻopau ai i ka ʻōpū o ka muliwai a hoʻomaloʻo i ka hoʻokele waiwai kūloko. Ke hoʻolilo nei ʻo GE i nā miliona miliona i ka hebedoma ma nā hoʻolaha hoʻolaha e hōʻike ana i nā dredhe umauma waimaka nui. Akā e like me nā mākaukau o ka EPA a me ka DEC, ua holo nā kime, ʻaʻole ia ka lawena o nā kaiāulu, ʻaʻole hoʻi i noʻonoʻo ʻia no ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana i ka mea i hōʻeuʻeu ʻia mai ka wai ma loko o ka wai. Ma lalo o ke kānāwai federal, he kuleana ka multinational no ka hana ʻana i nā mea ʻona, kahi kumu kūʻai ʻo GE e ʻole e uku.

ʻOiai ʻo General Electric i hoʻolei aku i hoʻokahi miliona mau paona a ʻoi aku paha o nā PCB i loko o ka muliwai, ʻaʻole ia ma kahi hoʻokahi, akā pāhola ʻia ma kahi o 40 mau wahi wela ma ka muliwai ma waena o Glens Falls a me Albany. Hele ka toxin mai kēlā mau wahi, komo i ke kaulahao meaʻai, ke kolamu wai, ka lepo ma kahakai, a me ka ea. E hoʻonui ʻia nā pono kalaiwa i nā koina nui o kēlā me kēia wahi wela. ʻO nā pono hana no ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka sediment a me ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻana i ka wai e hiki ke kalaka ʻia i loko a ma waho o nā pūnaewele kahi e pono ai, e pālua i ka hana i hoʻohana ʻia ma Plattsburgh. ʻAʻole koi ʻia kahi pono e mālama mau ʻia.

Hoʻomākaukau ʻia ka USEPA e hoʻolaha i kahi hoʻoholo e pili ana i kāna lāʻau no ka hoʻohaunaele PCB i hoʻolilo i ka muliwai ʻo Hudson i wahi nui neoneo aupuni ʻole o ʻAmelika.

ʻO ke kai ʻo Cumberland ma Plattsburgh i loko o Lake Champlain he kahua papa mokuʻāina ʻelua Superfund, e hōʻike ana i ka pilikia o ke ola kino a me ke kaiapuni. Loaʻa nā kikowaena PCB i nā ʻāpana 2000 i hoʻokahi miliona miliona. Hoʻolālā ku pōpoki ʻae ʻia ka 50 ppm. ʻO ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe PCB ma ka Lake Champlain i hōʻemi ʻia nā ʻike o ka 10 ppm.

Ua hoʻopuni ʻia kēia pūnaewele i ʻewalu mau eka a me nā ʻāpana ʻāina he 50 o lalo o ka wai i kai, kahi i hōʻiliʻili ai nā PCB. Ke hoʻopau ʻia nei ka hana a me nā mea hana, ua hoʻoholo ʻo Plattsburgh inā he pae waʻa paha ka pae, a i ʻole he māka paha. ʻO Dr. Dahlen, ka mea leʻaleʻa e leʻaleʻa ana me nā limahana mai ka hana luku, ua ʻakaʻaka ʻo ia i kona makemake ʻana i ka māka ʻana i ka waʻa, a ʻoi aku paha ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o kahi kahua ʻōpio pilikia.

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