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Amasistimu Wokuhlola Okusekwe ku-DGPS Wemiklamo Emincane Yokukhipha

Source: Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwamanye Amazwe

Izinhlelo zamanani asezingeni eliphansi, eziqashisayo ezenzelwe i-GPS manje sezitholakala ngamaphrojekthi amancane wokudonsela phansi. Uhlelo olujwayelekile lubandakanya ikhompyutha ejwayelekile ekhompiyutha, ene-Trimble 4000 yochungechunge lwe-GPS ne-software eqhutshwa yiWindows enjenge-HYPACK.

Uchwepheshe ofaneleke kahle angafaka uhlelo oluyisisekelo elangeni elincanyana nelilingana ngosuku olulodwa noma ezimbili. Lapho uhlelo selusethelwe, umuntu onolwazi oluyisisekelo lwemishini yokuhambisa nge-elekthronikhi (efana neLoran) angaqeqeshwa ukuqhuba uhlelo esikhathini esingaphansi kwezinsuku ezimbili.

Njengayo yonke imishini ye-elekthronikhi, izinhlelo ze-GPS azinazo izinkinga ezimbalwa, kepha uhlelo olufakwe kahle kufanele okungenani lube yi-90 kuya kumaphesenti angu-95 atholakalayo, futhi lesi silinganiso sihlala sithuthuka. Kukhona amandla nobuthakathaka, futhi ezinye izinhlelo zephrojekthi zikulungele kangcono ukwedlula ezinye.

Izinzuzo
Isethwe kahle futhi yafakwa, ezindaweni eziningi zasolwandle Amasistimu we-GPS azobika izikhundla ngesikhathi sangempela ngezibuyekezo zekhondi eyodwa ngaphakathi kwemitha eyodwa noma ngaphansi kwesikhundla seqiniso. Lokhu kuthembeke kakhulu kune-microwave noma amabanga wenyama.

Isikhundla se-dredge noma se-cutterhead sikhonjiswa ngesikhathi sangempela kuma-monitors angafakwa cishe kunoma iyiphi indawo yesimo sezulu esilinganiselwe ekuhlangeni. Izikhundla zingakhethwa ngokukhethekile yikhompyutha bese zikhunjulwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ukubukeza inqubekela phambili yomsebenzi. Lesi sici esisodwa sifakazele ukuthi sibalulekile kakhulu ekulandeleleni imisebenzi eyenzeka dredge. Kulula kakhulu ukuhlela izindawo ezishiywe dengwane, ukubeka kabusha lo dredge kanye ne-log block. Ngaphandle kwesikhundla sokufa, umqaphi angakhombisa ngokusobala isithombe sendawo eyakhiwe, imikhawulo yesiteshi, ukumiswa, ukusatshiswa kanye nemikhawulo.

I-GPS uhlelo lwesimo sezulu sonke. Ngenkathi ukunemba kungancishiswa ngandlela-thile esembozweni samafu esindayo, iqhwa noma inkungu, yakhelwe ukusebenza ngokunemba okwanele ngaphansi kwezimo eziningi.

Azikho izimpawu zomzimba, amabanga noma iziteshi ezisogwini okufanele zigcinwe, zihlolwe noma zisetshenziswe (lapho kulungiswa khona ukungafani okutholakalayo kwimigwaqo yezindiza yomphakathi). Ukulungiswa kwesistimu kuncane. Ngemuva kokuphothula ukuqala kokuqala nokuqeqeshwa, iphrojekthi ejwayelekile ingaphathwa ngezingcingo ezingaphansi kweyodwa ngenyanga kanye nokushaya ngezikhathi ezithile kochwepheshe.

Ukuqapha
I-GPS ilahlekelwa ukunemba noma ingasebenza ngokungahambi kahle lapho kunezimo ze- “multipath”. (I-Multipath idalwa lapho amasiginali wesathelayithi ekhombisa indawo enkulu yensimbi.) Imithombo ye-multipath ezindaweni zasolwandle ifaka ama-cranes amakhulu, imikhumbi namathangi kaphethiloli. Kulezi zimo, opharetha kufanele ayeke ukusebenza kuze kususwe umthombo we-multipath endaweni, noma asebenzise amabanga asetshenzisiwe anqunyelwe.

I-dredge kumele ibe nendawo ehlanzekile eyomile yokufaka ikhompyutha nemishini. Amakhompyutha ajwayelekile awasebenzi kahle ekushiseni ngokweqile noma ebandayo, ngokuzungeza ukudlidliza ngokweqile noma lapho kumanzi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amakhompiyutha amaningi futhi angena endaweni yesimo sezulu ayatholakala; kumane kubiza ngaphezulu. (Izinhlelo ezijwayelekile zifakiwe futhi zisebenza kahle kwikhabethe le-Ellicott® Uchungechunge lweBrand 370 10 ″ dredge.)

Ama-dredge opharetha adinga ukuqeqeshwa ekusebenziseni ikhompyutha nesoftware. Ngenkathi izinhlelo ezintsha “zisebenziseka kalula,” isikhathi sokuqeqesha singahluka kakhulu, kuya ngokufaneleka komuntu lowo. Ngokuvamile, kufanele kube nomuntu oyedwa osebenza ngokugcwele kule phrojekthi onamakhono amahle wekhompyutha.

Noma yenziwe lula kakhulu kusuka kumishini yangaphambilini, kungcono kakhulu uma lezi zinhlelo zifakiwe, zimiswa futhi zigcinwa ngochwepheshe. Inkampani eqasha uhlelo kufanele inikeze le sevisi ngezindleko ezifanele.

Noma imishini ithembekile, ukwehluleka kungenzeka. Qiniseka ukuthi wazi ukuthi uluthathaphi uhlelo lokusekelayo (imvamisa kusuka enkampanini yokuqashisa).

Eminyakeni emihlanu eyedlule, i-CLE ifake izinhlelo eziningi zokubeka nge-elekthronikhi kuma-dredges nasezikebheni zokuhlola. Siguqule yokusungula kwethu ichibi lokuqashisa kuphela ezinhlelweni ze-Trimble GPS, naku-Coastal Oceanographics HYPACK software.

Ukufakwa kwamuva nje bekungokwenzelwe i-AGM Marine ukulungiselela iphrojekthi yokwakhiwa kabusha eProvincown, Massachusetts. I-AGM isebenzise i-Ellicott®  I-Brand Series 370 dredge, enesikhala esilinganiselwe kepha esanele sekhabhathi. Ikhompiyutha yafakwa eshalofini elilengiswe ophahleni lwendlu, kwathi i-monitor yamiswa ngaphansi kwayo ngqo. I-GPS namandla kagesi afakwa ebhokisini elingangeni manzi ngemuva kwesihlalo somqhubi. Kwasetshenziswa i-generator encane ukuphakela ugesi.

Inkontileka bekungeyokwenza ngcono ukugujwa kwesiteshi sokungena esingamamitha angama-250 ububanzi eProvincetown Harbour. Indawo okwakumele yenziwe kabusha yayimiswe ngendlela engajwayelekile. I-CLE idale isithombe kumqapha wekhompiyutha ekhombisa imikhawulo yesiteshi, ama-offsets ezinyawo ezingama-50, iziteshi ezingama-50-foot kanye nohlaka lwendawo yokudonswa ngqo kanye nezindawo ezijulile. Lokhu kukhonjiswa kwenze kwalula kumphathi we-dredge ukubona ngeso lengqondo ukuma kwe-dredge maqondana nezinhlelo, nokudlula ezindaweni "ezingageji". Lapho i-dredge isemgqeni, ukusebenza okujwayelekile kwekhompyutha bekuvalelwe okhiye abayisishiyagalombili: umsiki, okhiye be- “s” kanye no “e” bokuqala nokuphela kokushanela.

Ngaphandle kwezinzuzo ezisobala, usonkontileka ukwazile ukuthola ezinye izinzuzo abengazilindele. Ngenxa yokuguguleka okukhulu komgwaqo, ukuhamba ngesikebhe, kanye nesimo sezulu esibuhlungu, ukubhekelwa phansi kwesakhiwo bekufanele kususwe njalo esiteshini. Kuwona womabili la mazwe, umphathi we-dredge wakwazi ukudonsa isikhundla esiqondile sedredge ngaphambi kokuyihambisa futhi ayibuyisele endaweni efanayo lapho umsebenzi uqalwa kabusha. Ekuqhubekeni kwephrojekthi, le dredge ihlangane nezithiyo eziningi ngendlela yokushiya udoti kanye nemfucumfucu elahliwe. Umbonisi waphinda futhi wakwazi ukubika ngokunembile izindawo zalezi zithintelo kunjiniyela ohlala eCorps ngokufunda izixhumanisi aqonde ngqo kuqapha. Ngemuva kokuphothula ucwaningo lokuqala lwe-post dredge, i-CLE ikwazile ukuhlinzeka ngesibuko esisha sokuqapha esiveza ngokunembe indawo ngayinye edinga ukuphinda idilizwe. Lokhu kuvumele umphathi omkhulu ukuba asheshe futhi ngokushesha ashiye indawo ngayinye ngaphandle kokuqagela.

I-AGM ibike yasebenzisa ama-microwave positioning system phambilini futhi yathola ukuthi iphakethe le-GPS belingabizi kakhulu futhi lithembekile futhi lisebenziseka kalula. Futhi, izindleko zokufaka, ukusetha, ukuqeqeshwa nokuqashiswa kwemishini zazingabizi kakhulu kunendleko yokuhlolwa kwezikhundla zokubekwa kwamabanga wenyama.

Akungatshazwa ukuthi izinhlelo zokusebenza ze-GPS ezingadonswa phansi ziye zaqala ukuphuma. Njengoba imishini nesoftware kuqhubeka kukhula, izinzuzo ezintsha zokuncintisana zizotholwa yilabo abasebenzisayo ukuhola. Iqiniso ngukuthi njengoba izingqinamba zezemvelo ziyaqhubeka nokuqina, izindleko zokunciphiswa kwegceke ngalinye lama-cubic lizoqhubeka likhuphuke. Amandla esitshalo sokudonsela phansi ukulawula isikhathi sokuphinda wehliswe futhi sinciphise isikhathi esichithwe ukuphinda sakhiwe kabusha kuba yisici esinqumayo sokuthi ngubani ozuza noma olahlekelwe yiphrojekthi. Ukuma kwesikhundla sangempela kwesibambiso kubalulekile ekulawuleni zombili lezi zinto.

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