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Imikhiqizo Yezimbiwa ZaseDuPont - Inqubo Yezimayini ZaseDredge

Izimbiwa ezisindayo zenziwa ngezigaba eziningana noma ukulandelana kokusebenza. Lezi zigaba zichazwe ngezansi ngokulandelana kokuvela.

Clearing
Ekuqaleni, zonke izingodo ezingathengiswa zivunwa zisuka endaweni yezimayini eseduze. Iziqu, izihlahla ezingaphansi kwaso kanye namabhulashi asele ayaqoqwa bese kuhanjiswa ngogandaganda abakhasa. Lokhu okusetshenziswayo kuvunyelwe ukoma futhi kamuva kushiswe.

I-topsoil iyabe isisuswa ekujuleni kwe-6-8 kuyo bese ifakwa endaweni yokugcina yediphozithivu kamuva noma ibekwe ngokuqondile endaweni yezimayini eseduze. Lo msebenzi wenziwa i-23-yd3 i-pan-wheel-drive-skicker eyakhiwe ngamasondo amane.

Dredging
I-ore ifakwa emgodini nge-Ellicott ® brand suction dredges ifakwe ngesihloko sendawo.  (bona isithombe) I-dredge inama-spuds amabili abekwe emuva ngemuva, asetshenziswa njengezimbotshana ngokuhlangana kanye nemigqa yokujikisa ukuqhubekisela phambili noma ukubuyisa emuva. Iphampu ye-20-in dredge dragesges ingena ngepayipi le-22-in lezingxenye ze-40-ft ezisekelwa kuma-pontoons. Lezi zixhuma idreyini nesigayo esimanzi esintantayo.

IWet Mill
Imigodi emanzi yakhiwe emabhageleni ambalwa entantayo. Ukuzulazula okusuka dredge kuthuthela ezikrinini ezinyakazayo nge-0.25-in openings. Ukweqiwa ngokweqile kwehla ngamandla emgodini wesando lapho izigaxa ze-hardpan zichotshozwa. Ukuphuma kokuphuma eshumeni lesando kugobhoza ngamandla ukuya esikrinini esinokuvulwa kwe-1-in. I-+ 1-in ngokweqile eyenziwe ngezimpande ngokuyinhloko, ededelwa emuva ngqo echibini. I-undersize iphonswa emuva kwizikrini.

Umbila omanzi uphatha i-ore eluhlaza equkethe cishe amaminerali asindayo we-4% ngamanani afinyelela ku-1100 Gt / hr. Ukusuka kulokhu, kukhiqiza amaminerali asindayo we-80% asindayo ngokulungiswa kwe-TiO2 kwe-78%. Imililo emanzi isebenzisa izigaba ezintathu zokugxila komoya. I-Spirals yimikhombe ye-helicoid ebekwe endaweni ethambekayo futhi ihlelwe ku-7-, 5-, noma i-3-Turn switch. Ukudla okushelelayo okuqukethe isihlabathi namanzi kwethulwa ngaphezulu kokuphaphazeka ngakunye. Lapho impahla igeleza yehle futhi izungeza imikhombe, amaminerali alula njenge-quartz nesihlabathi se-silica ayiswa ngaphandle komfula. Amaminerali asindayo, isb, i-ilmenite, i-zircon ne-staurolite, athambekele ekugxiliseni ngaphakathi ngaphakathi kwemijikelezo bese ngokuhamba kwesikhathi adonswe ezindaweni ezikhethiwe. Ukusakaza okuhlukahlukene kokugxila okuhlukahlukene kubuyiselwa emuva emuva ekubuyiselweni kwenye indawo noma ukujikeleza okulandelanayo ukuze kugxilwe kakhulu.

Imiklamo e-rougher ikhiqiza amaminerali asindayo we-10-15%. I-rougher imisila iyaphonsa echibini njengokubuyela emuva. Njengoba i-96% yokuphakelwa kwe-dredge ibuyiselwa echibini, i-dredge ne-echibini empeleni liqhubekela phambili libheke phambili lapho okumbiwa khona. Cishe njalo emavikini amabili, kuyadingeka ukuthutha isigayo esimanzi ukuze sihambisane nokuqala kosuku.

Ama-rougher spiral mids adluliselwa kuphiko lwekhanda ukuze aphindaphinde ngaphezulu kwama-roughers. Ukugxiliswa komoya onamandla kuyadonswa kuya kokuhlanzeka komoya. Ukuhlanzisisa okuhlanzayo kugeleza ngamandla adonsela phansi okweleni kochungechunge. I-fisheral spings yemisipha ibuyela emuva kwisampu yokuhlanzisisa yokuhlanza. Ukugxila kwama-fishery kudonswa ngepayipi le-5-in kuya esitokisini esakhiwe emhlabeni, ukulayishwa emalolini ukuze kuhanjiswe emgodini owomile.

Umile Mill
I-concentrate yamanzi emanzi iyinhlanganisela yamaminerali e-titanium, ama-silicates amaminerali asindayo ne-quartz. Umsebenzi wesigayo esomile ukuthola amaminerali e-titanium, bese uwahlukanisa abe umkhiqizo we-ilmenite nomkhiqizo we-leucoxene-rutile. Le nqubo ithatha ithuba lokuhanjiswa kwamaminerali e-titanium ekwelashweni okuphezulu kokuqina kanye namandla kazibuthe aphezulu I-concentrate emanzi yesigayo ihlutshiwe kusetshenziswa i-sodium hydroxide ngaphambi kokucutshungulwa kwesigayo esomile. Lokhu kususa ukumbozwa kobuso bomhlaba nobumba ezinhlayiyeni. Izindawo zokusanhlamvu ezihlanzekile zithuthukisa ukululama futhi zivumela imikhiqizo yamaminerali esezingeni eliphakeme ukuthi ikhiqizwe. I-ore ehlutshiwe iyomiswa kuma-rotary dryers. I-ore eshisayo ihlukaniswa okokuqala kuma-separator we-rougher high-tension kanye ne-rougher concentrate iphathwa kuma-rolls we-high-tension ahlanzekile. Ama-concentrate ahlanzayo adluliswa kumazibuthe amakhulu, ngalinye linamabhange amabili ama-rotor amahlanu asebenza ngochungechunge. Ingxenyana kazibuthe iqoqwe futhi ithunyelwe njenge-ilmenite. Lo mkhiqizo uqukethe amaminerali we-titanium ayi-98% kanye nezilinganiso ezingama-64% TiO2. Ingxenyenamba engeyona eyemagnetic ibuyiselwa emuva kusekethe lokugcina lokuhlanza ukuthola i-leucoxene ne-rutile ukuze ithunyelwe. Umkhiqizo wokugcina uqukethe amaminerali we-titanium ayi-98.5% futhi uhlaziya i-80% TiO2. Ukutholwa okuphelele kwe-TiO2 emgodini owomile kumaphakathi ngama-97%.

I-Staurolite
Umsila ongasebenzi ovela kusifunda esinamandla kakhulu uphakelwa kumazibuthe amakhulu. Umkhiqizo kazibuthe yi-staurolite yezentengiso, ehlola i-45-50% Al2O3 ne-13-15% Fe2O3. Kukhiqizwa amamaki ahlukene ukuhlinzeka ngesihlabathi esikhethekile (i-Biasill®) futhi uhlinzeke nge-sandblast abrasive (Starblast®).

zircon
I-Staurolite magnetic tailings equkethe i-25-30% zircon, i-15-20% amaminerali we-aluminium silrate futhi mayelana ne-50% quartz. Ukudonswa kwamandla okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-zircon kwenza ukwehlukaniswa kwamandla kusuka kumaminerali asindayo akhanya kunokwenzeka kusetshenziswa imizekeliso. Ukugxiliswa komoya we-zircon kumisiwe bese kufakwa kabusha yinqubo eyenziwe ngemuva kwesigamu se-titanium esomile.

Ama-tonnages amakhulu we-zircon asetshenziselwa ukubumba izihlabathi embonini yokutholwa. Amanani amancane asetshenziswa ekwenzeni izithasiselo, ama-ceramic opacifiers, insimbi ye-zirconium namakhemikhali. Izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamamaki zikhiqizwa izidingo zekhwalithi yokuhlangana ekusetshenzisweni kokuphela ngakunye.

Ukuvuselelwa kabusha
Ukuhlolwa kokutshala utshani kwaqala ekusalweni kwemayini ngo-1952. Eminyakeni edlule, izinhlobo eziningi zotshani nezihlahla, kanye nomanyolo, kwasetshenziswa ngempumelelo ethile. Utshani obubodwa, obunegama elingajwayelekile elithi “Utshani obuthandayo obukhalayo base-Afrika,” bangeniswa endaweni enezimo ezifanayo zemvelo. Utshani bothando bukhule kahle ngokulingene futhi basiza ukuzinzisa imisila ukuze izithombo zikaphayini zikwazi ukuhlala.

Ekuqaleni kwe-1969, noma kunjalo, ukuphinda kuthathwe kabusha kuthathe inkomba entsha. Esikhundleni sokutshala umila omusha ngqo emsileni, ingaphezulu lisuswa ngaphambi kokumba futhi lisebenziselwe ukumboza umsila. Utshani bamadlelo buye batshalwe bese ukukhula kusungulwa ngokushesha. Ngemuva kokufakwa komanyolo nokuqina kwenhlabathi okwenele, izihlahla zikaphayini zibuyiselwa. Lolu hlelo lokuphinda lubizwe njengemodeli embonini yezimayini eFlorida.

Water Treatment
Ngesikhathi sokusebenza kwezimayini, i-humate evela enhlabathini ikhishwa iye ekumisweni kwe-colloidal emanzini echibini lamanzi. I-Humate yinto ebolile kancane, enombala onsundu ngombala, futhi ijwayelekile kulo lonke elaseFlorida. Kubonakala ikakhulukazi eFlorida "hardpan" ukuqhuma.

Ngesikhathi udlula ngaphesheya komzimba we-ore, kuba nesidingo sokushintsha izinga lechibi eliphansi kwesinye isikhathi ukuvumela ukwakheka kwamanzi ukuthi kufinyelele ekujuleni noma kwesinye isikhathi ukujula konke Amachibi okupompa amanzi nokuphuma kwemvula aqoqiwe aqoqwe bese kusethwa ochungechungeni. zezindawo zokwelapha ngaphambi kokukhululwa kwimisakazo yomphakathi.

I-Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) yengezwe emanzini ukwehlisa i-pH ku-3.5. Lesi senzo sidonsa ukwehla kwento ephilayo futhi kushiya isibhakabhaka esicacile, esinqunywa emachibini okuxazulula. Amanzi acacile abese engathathi hlangothi ku-pH 7 nge-lime futhi adluliselwe emifudlaneni yomphakathi.

Izindaba Nezigaba Ezifundwayo