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Ukukhetha Ukudonswa Kwemishini Yokusebenza Nokusebenza Kwezinto Ezilungele Ukuqalwa (Igolide) I-Alluvial Deposits (Izimayini zegolide nge-Bucketwheel Dredges)

Source: Imayini Yokwakhiwa Kwezomhlaba Nokwakhiwa

Kuyo yonke le minyaka kuye kwenziwa izivivinyo eziningi zokuvivinya umzimba ukuze kuvunyelwe izinhlangano ezingaba usizo ezimayini zegolide ukuhlaziya izici ezahlukahlukene zezindawo zemayini okuhlosiwe. Lezi zivivinyo ziyahlukahluka ngokuya ngendlela okuhloswe ngayo ukukhishwa. Ngokwesimo sokudonswa kwemoto, ikakhulukazi umgibisholo onamasondo, ukufakwa kokuhlolwa okulandelayo kuyadingeka:

  1. Ijika eligcwele granularmetric elimele wonke umzimba we-ore liyadingeka, ikakhulukazi uma umzimba ungaqukatha okubalulekile okungaphezu kwamandla we-dredge ukumba noma ukuthutha.
  2. Ukuze udale lolu lwazi olwanelisa ukwethula lolu ijika le-granularmetric, izimbambo zokuhlola kufanele zimbiwe nakho konke okuphathelene nalawa magodi wokuhlola kukalwe.
  3. Imvamisa, umgodi wokuhlola noma ukufaka ikhebula elisetshenziselwe ukukhipha amasampula kumele kukalwe ukuze kulungiswe kungaphansi kobukhulu bendandatho yepompo yokutshala ezopompa okungaphezulu.
  4. Endabeni yokusebenzisa i-14 ″ (356mm) usayizi wepayipi u-Ellicottt®  i-brand mine dredge (i-1000 isiyonke efakiwe i-HP ne-150 HP ku-ukumbiwa), kufanele kuqhutshwe isampula lesampula elingaphansi kwama-intshi angu-12, nakho konke okugcinwe kungaphakathi kwe-tube kuhlolwe ubukhulu. Lokhu kungenziwa ngokusebenzisa isisetshenziswa sokuhlola ithubhu kanye ne-auger. Ngokuvimbela ukutholakala kwalolu hlobo lwezinto zokusebenza, izimbobo zokuhlola zingase zimbiwe nge-backhoe, i-donline, noma, uma izimo zenhlabathi zivuma, umthwalo wangaphambili wokulayisha ngaphambili. Umgodi wokuhlola nawo ungambiwa. Umgodi wokumba odinga umgodi udinga umgodi wokuhlola oqiniswe kahle.

Sizing
Zonke izinto ezithathwe emgodini wokuhlola kufanele zikalwe ngosayizi, ikakhulukazi uma kukhona noma yisiphi isibonakaliso sezinto ezibonakalayo sikhulu kakhulu ukuthi singadlula iphampu ye-dredge. Uma kutholakala leyo nto eyenziwe ngokweqile, kuhlolwa okwengeziwe kufanele kwenziwe ukuthola iphesenti lezinto ezidlula amandla okupompa. Lolu lwazi kufanele lusetshenziselwe ukucacisa ukukhethwa kosayizi ofanele wemishini.

  1. Okulandelayo, idiphozi kufanele ihlolwe izibonakaliso zobumba noma i-silt, kanye nezinkomba zokufaka usimende okungase kube nomphumela wentengo yokumba kanye nokukhethwa kwemishini yokusebenza.

Uma lokho okubunjiwe kungabumbeka kalula ukulala embhedeni nge-backhoe noma ku-draline, kuphephile ukucabanga ukuthi ukuvimbela ibhakede kungasigcwalisa ngokwanele isigaba sokumba. Uma kuhlangana nosimende, kuhlaziywa izinga lokusebenza kahle komshini wokuhlola kuyadingeka. Lokhu kuhlaziya kumele kube ngokulinganayo ngokuqhathaniswa namandla okumbiwa kwesondo okumbiwa kuwo okusetshenziselwa ukusetshenziswa. Ukuba khona kobumba kungadinga ukusetshenziswa kohlelo lokufrasha esondweni lomasondo ukuvundulula umkhiqizo oqhubekayo we-dredge.

Ngaphandle kwesidingo sohlelo lokufafaza, ubukhona bembumba buzothwala kanzima ekukhetheni imishini yokusebenza.

Ukuhlolwa okufanele komzimba we-ore kudinga okungenani izimbobo ezintathu zokuhlola. Lezi zimbobo kufanele zitholakale endaweni ephakeme, maphakathi nendawo, nethafa eliphansi lediphozi. Sicabanga ukuthi ukucubungula okwenziwe kulezi zimbobo kukhombisa ukuthi ukumbiwa komhlaba kufanelekile ukumba nokuthuthwa kwe-hydraulic kokuthile, kunengqondo ukucabanga ukuthi iphrojekthi yonke izobhekana nokuxhashazwa nge-dredge. Esimweni lapho imiphumela ikhombisa ukungathembeki akulungile, kuzodingeka ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe. Ezinye izindlela ezinjengokwandisa usayizi we-dredge noma ukushiya indawo ethile yediphozi zingabhekwa.

Bedrock
Ngokwengeza isampula elingehla, kuyadingeka impela ukuthi izimbambo zimbiwe zimbelwe noma ngaphansi kwediphozithi. Lokhu kuyadingeka ngenxa yezizathu ezimbili:

  1. Imizimba eminingi e-ore ivame ukuba namanani aphakeme kakhulu phansi.
  2. Lawa maxabiso aphezulu ahlala embhedeni ngokuvamile afakwa endaweni engahambelani kahle embhedeni. Ngenxa yalokhu, le ndawo kumele ibumbwe ngedredge, uma kungenzeka.

Isampula yaleli bhede liyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ukuboshwa kungabumba umgodi. Umahluko ukhona kufanele usungulwe Uma kwenzeka umehluko omkhulu wokuphakama, ucwaningo olunzulu lwesimo sembhede kufanele lwenziwe ukuthuthukisa uhlelo olufanelekile lwezokumbiwa. Ukuhlola ukuphakama kombhede kunganciphisa ukulahleka okungenzeka kwamanani aphezulu. Ukuthatha ukuhlolwa okugcwele komzimba we-ore kuqediwe futhi kufakazela ukugculisa, kungakhethwa isibambiso esithile sephrojekthi.

Usayizi wedreyini uzolawulwa ubukhulu bezinto ezibonakalayo, izidingo zomthamo womshini wokucubungula, ukujula kokumba, kanye nebanga phakathi kwendawo yezimayini nohlelo lokucubungula. Uhlelo lokucubungula kufanele lusondele dredge njengoba lusebenza ukuze banciphise amandla wehhashi kanye nemiphumela yokuphatha amapayipi kusuka amabanga amade wamapayipi.

Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, kucatshangelwa ukuthi zonke lezi zimo zibuyekezwe ngokuphelele, usayizi ofanele we-dredge ungaqunywa.

Isakhiwo sephrojekthi
Ngemuva kokukhethwa kwemishini yokudonsa, kufanele kusungulwe uhlelo lwezokumbiwa phansi oluvumela abasebenza ukuthi bahlaziye ukwakheka kwephrojekthi ephelele. Uhlelo lwezokumbiwa phansi kufanele luqinisekise ukuthi umzimba we-ore uyaxhashazwa ngendlela yokuthi ugcine ukusebenza okuqhubekayo nokunenzuzo empilweni yephrojekthi. Uhlelo kumele futhi luhlelelwe ukugcina izinga lokumbiwa njalo nokucubungula ngokushesha ngangokunokwenzeka isilinganiso sokuthola kabusha njalo sezimbiwa zegolide ezikhishwe. Uma umehluko obonakalayo utholakala kokuqukethwe kwegolide, ubukhulu, noma umehluko ezintweni ezingaphazamisa ukutholakala kwegolide, iphrojekthi kufanele ibekwe ukuhlinzeka inqubo yokukhishwa ngokulinganayo.

Ekuhleleni umsebenzi noma isakhiwo sephrojekthi, kuyadingeka ukuchaza izindawo ezinamanani lapho kunomehluko omkhulu ekwakhekeni. Izindawo lapho kukhishwa khona amaminerali kulula, uma kungenzeka, kungahlukaniswa futhi kufakwe amaminerali ngaphandle kwezindawo ezinobumba namamisele. Lokhu kuhlukaniswa kuyadingeka uma ukuba khona kwama-slimes noma ubumba kuthinta kakhulu ukusetha kwemishini yokusebenza kanye nezinga lapho uhlelo lokucubungula lungasebenza khona.

Uma ukuhlukahluka kungukuthi izinto ezisetshenziswayo kalula zingahlanganiswa nezinto zokwenziwa okunzima kakhulu ukuzisebenza futhi zisanikela ngesilinganiso esisebenzayo nesingalingani sokukhishwa, iphrojekthi ingabekwa ngokufanele.

Ngaphandle kwalokhu, uma kutholakala izindawo zokuhlushwa kakhulu, kungadingeka ukuthi kuguqulwe ukumba kokumba kanye nokusebenza kwesitjalo sokuhlomula se-dredge. Lokhu kuzoqinisekisa ukuthi amanani awalahleki ngokweqile kwesistimu nge-golide eningi ngokungajwayelekile, amanye awo angadlula ohlelweni lokufaka bese elahleka.

Izindawo ezinokugxila okuphezulu kwama-wall noma izinto ezibonakalayo okunzima ukuzisula kufanele zikhonjwe futhi zivikeleke noma zibhekelwe enye indlela yokuxhaphaza.

Ukuhlunga Umzimba We-Alluvial
Ngaphezu kokuhlaziya umzimba we-ore ukusungula ukuhambisana kwemishini yokufaka dredging, kuyadingeka ukuqonda nokuchaza amanani asediphozithi. Lawa magugu kufanele asungulwe ngudokotela wejometri owaziwayo futhi ongathandeki owazi imininingwane yocwaningo lwe-alluvial. Le nhlolokhono idingeka kakhulu uma abatshalizimali bezonxuswa ukuze kuthuthukiswe iphrojekthi.

Okuhlobene nokwakheka kweprojekhthi, inhlolovo yediphozi ene-alluvial ingahle isetshenziselwe ukuthola isikhundla esilinganayo samanani nezindawo ezingaba yinyumba noma zenani elincane. Uhlelo lokwakha izimayini kufanele lukuvumele ukudwengulwa kwezindawo eziyinyumba noma indawo yenani eliphansi ngaphambi kokumba imigwaqo ethwala igolide. Uma kunezindawo ezibalulekile zomhlaba oyinyumba nezindawo zenani eliphakeme ngaphansi kwazo, ukusebenza kwephrojekthi ngokuphelele kungathuthukiswa ngesivinini esikhulu sokudonswa ngamandla kulandelwa yizimayini ezijwayelekile.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ucwaningo lwesampula oluthuthukiswe ngokuphelele futhi lwaqedwa luvumela ukukhethwa okuhle kwemishini yokusebenza. Kungasho futhi ukuqondisa ukumbiwa kanye namazinga okukhishwa ukuze kugcinwe umsebenzi onenzuzo oqhubekayo. Ukuhlanganiswa kokufundwa kwenani necebo lemayini kuzothuthukisa izinga lokuthola impilo yonke yephrojekthi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, uma kudingeka ukuhamba kwemali okuphezulu kakhulu ekuqaleni, uhlelo lwephrojekthi olususelwa kumanani owaziwayo luzokhiqiza inzuzo enkulu kakhulu ekuqaleni kwephrojekthi.

Okokusebenza Kwenzuzo
Imishini yokwahlukanisa kufanele ikhethwe ngokususelwa kulwazi oluthuthukiswe ngenqubo yokukhethwa kwamasampula neyokuphamba. Le mishini kufanele yakhelwe ukuphatha uhla oluphelele lwamasayizi wezinto ezibonakaliswa yi-dredge. Okokusebenza kufanele kwenzelwe ukuvumela ukuhlukaniswa okuyisisekelo kwezinto ezibonakalayo zegolide-noma amaminerali kusuka etsheni, amatshe amatshe, namabhola obumba uma ekhona. (QAPHELA: Uma amabhola obumba ekhona futhi kukhona inani elikhulu lezinto zegolide, kungahle kudingeke ukushelela wonke amabhola obumba ukuvimba ukuthwala okungaphezulu kwamabhola obumba).

Ukwahlukanisa okuyisisekelo kungafezwa yigumbi elilingana ngokufanele ukuhlukanisa ubukhulu bokuthwala igolide kusuka kokuningi ngokweqile nokudoti ngokweqile, futhi kudoti kuhanjiswa ku-stackers noma kohlelo lokulethwa kwentambo. Ngemuva kokuhlukaniswa okuyinhloko, izinto ezithwele igolide kufanele zidluliselwe kumishini yokujigging noma kwenye imishini yokwehlukanisa amandla adonsela phansi njengoba kuthathwa njengokufanele.

Izinto ezigcinwe kusistimu yokujigging noma ama-slices ziyaqoqwa futhi zisetshenzwe njengoba kudingeka. Ngokucabanga ukuthi yonke imishini isebenza njengoba yakhelwe futhi ichazwe ngenhla, igolide lizophinda lutholakale.

Kuphrintiwe kusuka Imayini Yokwakhiwa Kwezomhlaba Nokwakhiwa

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