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URofomex Uhambisa iMexico Ngokubhekela Phosphate Ukuzethemba

Source: Ubunjiniyela Nezimayini Ijenali

I-Roca Fosforica Mexicoana SA de CV (Rofomex) ngiqale imayini eyodwa ye-phosphate eBaha California Sur e-1981 kanti enye ise1982. Umkhiqizo ohlanganisiwe wale misebenzi bekulindeleke ukuthi uphakamise iMexico esikhundleni sokuncika ngokuphelele kokungeniswa kwe-phosphate rock e-1980 ukuze ikwazi ukwaneliseka e-1985. Eminyakeni yamuva nje, iMexico ingenise cishe i-1.7 million mt / yr yedwala le-phosphate, ikakhulukazi evela eFlorida e-US naseMorocco. Uhulumeni waseMexico ubeke okukhulu kakhulu ezimayini zaseRofomex njengengxenye yohlelo lwawo ukwenza ngcono umkhiqizo emapulazini aseMexico.

Owokuqala ezimayini ezintsha zeRofomex useSan Juan de la Costa eGulf of California. Ikhiqize ukugxilwa kwayo okokuqala ngoJanuwari 1980, kanti umkhumbi wokuqala wokugcwala ushiye itheku iRofomex elibhekise eLazaro Cardenas oGwini lwePacific lwaseMexico ngo-Ephreli. Ukulayishwa kwemikhumbi kuhlelwe ukuthi kwenzeke njalo ezinsukwini eziyi-12.

Ukusuka kuLazaro Cardenas, i-phosphate egxile kuyo izohanjiswa ngojantshi izitshalo zeFertimex eSan Luis Potosi, eQueretaro naseGuadalajara. Kamuva, okunye ukuthunyelwa kuzodlulela ePanama Canal naseGulf of Mexico kuya esakhiweni seFertimex ethekwini lasePajaritos.

Ngokomthamo, imayini yaseSan Juan de la Costa izokhiqiza ama-730,000 mt / yr we-concentrate grading cishe i-31% P2O5 kusuka emisebenzini evulekile yomgodi ovulekile nangaphansi komhlaba ezokhipha ama-ores afaka i-18% P2O5. Ukukhiqizwa kwanyanga zonke kwama-concentrate kufinyelele ku-1,200 mt ngoJanuwari, i-12,800 mt ngoFebhuwari, i-12,000 mt ngoMashi, ne-20,000 mt ngo-Ephreli. Ukukhiqizwa bekuhlelelwe ukwakha cishe i-60,000 mt ngoJulayi nokuhlala kulelo zinga kulo lonke unyaka.

ESanto Domingo, ogwini lwasePacific lwenhlonhlo yaseBaja California, iRofomex yakha imayini ezokhiqiza u-1.5 million mt / yr wama-concentrate ngokudonswa kwezimayini idiphozi yesihlabathi lolwandle ebanga cishe i-4.5% P2O5 ebangeni le-cutoff le-3% P2O5. Ababili u-Ellicott ukusika ikhanda lokugunda amakhanda faka i-ore emthini oyisisekelo we-barge-puted plant, ozothela endaweni yemayini ngemuva kwama-dredges.

I-Rofomex yaqala eSanto Domingo maphakathi no-1982, kwathi ngo-1984 izimayini ezimbili ezintsha zale nkampani zathola insalela yesikhashana esifushane eMexico, nokuningi okwatholakala ukuthi kuthunyelwe kwamanye amazwe. Ngo-1985 izitshalo ezintsha ze-Fertimex zazihlelelwe ukuthi zikhiqize umkhiqizo, ukukhula komnotho kanye nenani labantu kuzokhuphula isidingo se-phosphate eMexico, futhi kubikezelwa ukuthi kuzoba nokushoda kwe-phosphate okusha. Ngokulindela lesi sidingo, iRofomex ihlele ukunwetshwa kwe-4.5 million mt / yr emabhodini okudweba.

Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, iMexico inomthombo omkhulu we-phosphate ongawasebenzisa eBaja California Sur, ngaphandle kwamadiphozi amabili asathuthukiswayo. Izazi zesayensi yokuma komhlaba iRofomex zibike ngokunye okwenzeka eSan Hilario, eSanta Rita, eTembabiche, eLa Purisima, eSan Jose de Castro naseSan Roque. Kulezi, idiphozi eSan Hilario ibilokhu ihlolwe kabanzi, ngezinkomba zamatshe amakhulu ahlanganisa i-11-13% edwaleni elihlanganisiwe kanye ne-14-18% edwaleni elingafakwanga ngaphansi kwe-30-80m yedwala elingaphezu kwamandla. Endaweni yaseSanta Rita, ukugxila kwezomnotho okunokwenzeka kwezifo zezidumbu kwenzeka ezindaweni zakamuva ngaphansi kokungabibikho okucindezelwayo, kepha lokhu kusazohlolisiswa kakhulu.

I-Huge Santo Domingo Resource
Ukuba khona kwesihlabathi se-phosphate endaweni yaseBahia de Magdalena oGwini lwePacific kwaziwa kusukela ngo-1914, kwathi ngo-1955 uHanna Mining noMinera Fornos benza ucwaningo lokuthi kungenzeka yini kule ndawo. Kodwa-ke, ukuntuleka kwengqalasizinda kanye neMexicois embonini yezimayini kudale ukuthi uHanna ahoxe. Ngo-1974, i- “Consejo de Recursos Minerals,” okuyi-ejensi kahulumeni, yabheka le ndawo futhi yanquma nokuthi ukumbiwa kwezimayini kwakungeke kwenzeke ngokwezomnotho. Ngo-1978, izazi zesayensi yokwakheka komhlaba zaqhuba uhlelo lokumba, zilandela ukufakwa kogu ngezimbobo ngezikhathi ezi-2-km, futhi bathola ukuthi ama-phosphates ayekhona ngaphezu kwebanga elingaphezu kwamakhilomitha angama-70. Imikhawulo yangempela ayitholakalanga ngaphambi kokuthi uhlelo lokubhola luphele. UFomento Minero waphinde walibheka leli themba, wanquma ukuthi inqubo yokuhlomula kwezomnotho ingathuthukiswa, futhi yaqhubeka ngokuthuthukiswa kwezimayini.

Umkhawulo osentshonalanga wediphozi leSanto Domingo yiLwandlekazi iPacific, futhi ububanzi bawo empumalanga buyi-20 km. Kuliqiniso-kulele, kunekhava encane noma ayinawo nhlobo umhlabathi, nobukhulu bawo buyi-19 m. Ukukhululeka kuncane, nokuphakama okukhulu akuvamile ukuba ngaphezulu kwe-15 m ngaphezu kwezinga lolwandle. Umzimba we-ore ungowaminyaka yamuva, kanti i-phosphate iyenzeka njengesihlabathi esihle, esiyindilinga, nesiqu, esivame ukwengxenye ye-coarser yediphozithi. Amanani amancane we-magnetite, i-ferromagnesium, i-rutile, ne-sphene, kanye nabanye abavukuzi, akhona. Amaminerali e-Clay ngokuvamile awekho, ngaphandle kwasondele kakhulu ebusweni. Amabanga aphakathi we-4.5% P2O5. Umbala uyahlukahluka kakhulu kepha uvame ukuphuzi ngoku nsundu. Umthombo ulinganiselwa ku-1.1 billion wamatshe wamatshe.

Kwenziwe izifundo ezinemininingwane yezindawo ezimbili zezimayini, i-Elenas ne-Prados, besebenzisa imishini yokufukula i-Longyear ukwenza amasampula. Isifunda i-Elenas singaseningizimu-iningi lazo ezimbili futhi silinganisa i-6 km enyakatho-eningizimu nge-3.5 km empumalanga nentshonalanga. Umngcele waseningizimu usenyakatho nje kwetheku lokudoba laseLopez Mateos. Umkhawulo wePrados uhlangana nomkhawulo osenyakatho we-Elenas zone futhi u-9 km enyakatho nentshonalanga. Umngcele osentshonalanga we-ore yi-estuary eyenziwe yi-barriers Island, i-Isla Magdalena.

Zombili lezi zindawo ezi-ore zitholakele kugridi le-500 m, kusetshenziswa imigodi yama-rigs ebekwe ngamaloli e4-in. Cishe amasampula we-5,000 athathwe kulezi zimbobo ngezikhathi ze-1.5-m mpo. Ubunzulu bezinga lomgodi lalingu-70 m futhi ukujula komgodi ophakathi kwakungu-30-m. Ukuhlolwa kwe-Ore kulandele umkhuba osungulwe embonini yaseFlorida phosphate.

I-Dual Dredge Mining
Ukuhlaziywa kwezinhlelo zezimayini zephrojekthi ye-Santo Domingo kufaka ukucubungulwa kwabavubukuli be-barkwheel, ama-dralines, ama-scrapers, amafosholo kanye nezindawo ezakhiwe ngemigodi. Ukukhethwa kohlelo olusekelwe dredge oluncike ikakhulu ekutheni ezinye izinhlelo azikwazanga ukusebenza kahle ngaphansi kwezinga lolwandle. Izindleko zokusebenza okuncane nezokulondolozwa kukhuthaze ukukhethwa kokugcina kwe-hydraulic cutter suction dredges enamakhanda okugxoba we-27-in ububanzi.

Ama-Ellicott amabili® kwakusetshenziswa ama-brand dredges, yilowo nalowo onamandla wokupompa nge-2,000 mt / hr yesolar egxilile esitshalweni esiyisisekelo esintantayo. Ukubekwa ngakunye kuhlangene nesitshalo ngumbhobho oguquguqukayo, i-600-m, 24-in dia. Amakhanda we-dredge anokufinyelela okuphansi kwe-15 m. Amadolobho amabili ahlanganisiwe ukuze asebenze imayini eyodwa ngaphambili elinganisa i-21 m ububanzi. Ukubekeka ngakunye okusebenzayo endaweni enekhono kuyakwazi ukugcina isitshalo sisondele. Ngokusebenza okujwayelekile, ama-dredges amabili asebenza ngokubambisana cishe nge-70% yamandla abo alinganiselwe.

Imayini yokudonsa yenziwa ebangeni lokusika elingu-3% P2O5 kukhiqizwa ibanga lesilinganiso esingu-4.56% P2O5 endaweni yezimayini zasePrados kanye no-4.29% endaweni yase-Elenas. Akukho ukususwa komthwalo omningi ozodingeka; kodwa-ke, imfucuza yangaphakathi kwi-ore izonciphisa ibanga lokuphakelayo kufektri yokuhlomula ibe ngu-4.05% P2O5. Nge-CaO emaphakathi engu-9.34%. Izinga lezimayini lalihlelelwe ku-16.5 million mt / yr, lisebenza amashifu amathathu ngosuku, izinsuku ezingama-330 ngonyaka.

Imayini ibhekene ne-6 m ngaphezulu kwezinga lolwandle nama-12 m ngaphansi kwezinga lolwandle. Izimayini ezikhethiwe bezingenzeki njalo, kepha izindawo zokuqukethwe ze-CaO eziphakeme zazigwenywa lapho kungenzeka. Ukushayelwa kwesampula kwenziwa kwigridi ye-100-m, umgodi ngamunye umele i-225,000 mt of ore.

Ama-dredges asebenza kumbane kagesi we-4,160v, 60 hertz. Ukufakwa bekukhona kubhaxa elintantayo.

Ukugxila Ph Sands Sands
Ngoba ama-ores akhiwe ngaphezulu nangaphansi kwezinga lolwandle anezici ezihlukile, ikakhulukazi okuqukethwe kwe-CaO, iRofomex yathuthukisa inqubo ehambelana nawo womabili ama-ores. Uhlelo lwavumela ukulahlwa kwemisila endaweni enamaminithi ngaso sonke isikhathi. NjengaseSan Juan de la Costa, amanzi asolwandle ayesetshenziswa kuyo yonke inqubo, ngomkhiqizo kuphela owagezwa ngamanzi amasha ukuqeda i-chlorine.

Izinto eziyinhloko zalolu hlelo zazihlanganisa isitshalo sokuqala esiyisithabathaba esingemuva kwasemuva kwesakhiwo kanye nesitashi sesibili sokufafaza, amathangi okugeza, nezihlungi ezisogwini. I-ore yaphayishwa ukusuka ebhageini yaya esifundeni esisogwini ngamapayipi asekelwa ngamapayoni.

Ukuhamba kancane kusuka emabeleni kudle isitshalo esisisekelo esibekwe emgodini ngesilinganiso se-2,200 mt / hr, lapho kukhishwa okugoqiwe kuqala kudliwe ezikrinini ezimbili zedeski elilodwa ukuklwebhula kwa-1 / 4-intshi imfucumfucu ephilayo, enjengamagobolondo, kanye ore ngokweqile kusuka slurry. I-Screen undersize yayihamba ngebhasikidi ukuze isuse ingxenye yamandla we-150-mesh solits kanye ne-slimes futhi igxilise ukujula. Inhlawulo yayigeleza ngamandla adonsela endaweni yokulahla, bese ukugeleza kwehla kumathangi okugcina, anikezela nge-1 / 2 hr umthamo wokuhlinza.

Ukusuka kumathangi okuhlinzwa, amaphampu ahambisa i-slurry kubahlukanisi be-hydro, lapho i-28-mesh solh yamahhala isuswe khona futhi yaphoswa imfucuza. Ukuzulazula kwase kuthuthukiselwe ebhange lesibili lesiphepho, esisusa noma yimaphi ama-solus ama-150-mesh asele futhi kwalimaza ukwehla kwaba yi-65% solids. Ukulungiselela i-flotation, isivunguvungu esiqubukayo sasimiswa ngezigaba eziningana. Amafutha e-dizili ayesetshenziswa emulsion.

I-slurry enesimo ihlanjululwe yaya ku-32-35% solids ngamanzi olwandle futhi yanikezwa amabhange amane amaseli we-flotation we-500-ft3. Imisila yampontshelwa ukuchitha, futhi ukugxilwa okuyinhloko kwegelezela emathangini okwenza kungasebenzi, lapho yaphazanyiswa khona nge-sulfuric acid ukuvimbela ama-reagents e-flotation. I-concentrate iphonswa ogwini ngesilinganiso esingu-360 mt / hr.

Ibha yokudlulisela ehlome ngamathangi we-reagent aletha ama-reagents ayisisekelo we-flotation kanye ne-95% i-sulfuric acid kubarge ukuxhasa inqubo.

Ogwini, ukugxila okugxilisayo kuyagezwa futhi, kufakwe amazolo ngezivunguvungu, futhi kuqhutshwe kusigcawu se-hydraulic ukuze kuhlukaniswe i-minus 28 / plus 48 mesh solids. Ingxenye ye-mesh ye-48 ehlanganisiwe ihlanjululwe futhi idluliselwe kumathebula ashukumisayo ukuze ususe i-calcitic solids. Ingxenye yemissi engu-48 mesh ihamba ngebhasikidi ukukhiqiza enye ingxenye yobukhulu bezinhlayiya e-100 mesh. Ingxenye ye-mesus 100 mesh isethuthukiswa ngokusebenzisa izivunguvungu ezibuthakathaka iye emabhange e-Humphrey spirals, ekhipha i-ilmenite, zircon, ne-magnetite. Lawa amaminerali asindayo adonswa echibini elihlukile lokugcina. I-phosphate igxila ekhiqizwa ematafuleni adlidlizayo kanti nemiklamo ihlangana nengxenye ye-100 / minus 48 ingxenyana yokukhiqiza okuphakelayo.

I-pulp inezimpawu ze-diamine, i-acetic acid, ne-5% kaphayini kawoyela emanzini olwandle ukuyilungiselela ukuthungwa okungatheni, okuveza umkhiqizo wokungcola we-silica kanye nemisila ye-phosphate njengomkhiqizo. I-phosphate slurry ivuselelwa kuma-solon we-60% ngezivunguvungu, igezwe ngamanzi amasha, ibuyiswe ngamabhayisekili futhi, ihlungiwe. Ukuhlunga kufakwe nezifafaza zokuwasha.

Umhambisi webhande uqhubekisela phambili ikhekhe lokuhlunga esikhungweni sokugcina esigxilisiwe. Uma kunesidingo, i-bulldozer izokhipha impahla egciniwe ukukhiqiza ukoma okwengeziwe.

Indawo yokuhlanza amanzi endaweni yokusebenzela amanzi asolwandle izococa amanzi asesimweni esihle ukuze ikhiqize amanzi ahlanzekile futhi ihlinzeke i-boiler esetshenziselwa ukulungisa i-diamine reagent. Ukucaciswa kwamanzi amasha kusetha okuqukethwe okukhulu kwe-chlorine kwe-350 ppm.

Inqubo ye-phosphate esetshenziswayo eSanto Domingo ikhiqiza imithombo eminingi yemfucuza, yonke ifakwa ezindaweni ezinamaphayini noma ngemuva kwemigodi eyakhiwe ngesihlabathi. Ogwini, indawo yemvelo ishiyelwa njengesihlahla esiqhubekayo sokuhlukanisa izindawo zokungcola emanzini echibini. Amanzi angcolile ayenziwa kabusha. Ukusakaza imfucuza kufaka i-300 mt / hr kwisitshalo esintantayo ngaphambi kwamangqamuzana Imisila eyisisekelo ye-flotation equkethe i-1,340 mt / hr ye-slurry kuma-solar we-30%; imfucuza ye-silica gxila kusuka ku-flotation yesibili bese ugeza amanzi, uqukethe i-3,000 mt / hr ehlanganisiwe ye-slurry kuma-solar we-5%; namaminerali asindayo agxiliwe emizuzwini kaHumphrey, engaba ngu-72 / mt hr we-slurry kuma-solar we-25%.

Izigxobo ezikhiqizwe eSanto Domingo zithuthwa nge-100 km ezindaweni ezihambisa izimpahla ePunta Belcher esiqhingini saseMagdalena ngesikebhe esidonsa ngamatshe. Ezindongeni zokugcina zePunta Belcher zakhelwe i-100,000 mt yokugxila. I-dock iphatha imikhumbi efinyelela ku-40,000 DWT, futhi uhlelo olugxilisiwe lokulayisha lunomthamo we-3,000 mt / hr.

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